Next-generation solid rocket propellants will have flame temperatures above the melting point of tungsten, so high temperature ceramics will be required. Ultramet can meet this demand with fiber-reinforced ceramic throats, ceramic-coated carbon/carbon throats, and/or hybrids of the two. Ultramet ceramic composites and coatings can also be used to prevent erosion in the exhaust nozzle.
TaC 7208°F (3987°C)*
HfC 7136°F (3947°C)*
*D.T. Vier, Thermal and Other Properties of Refractories, Technical Report Program R056, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory for Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, 1975.