CVD results from the chemical reaction of gaseous precursor(s) at a heated substrate to yield a fully dense deposit. Ultramet uses chemical Vapor Deposition to apply refractory metals and ceramics as thin coatings on various substrates and to produce freestanding thick-walled structures.
Thermodynamics and kinetics drive both precursor generation and decomposition. Control of thermodynamics and kinetics through temperature, pressure, and concentrations yields the desired deposit.
metal halide (g) → metal(s) + byproduct (g)
metal halide (g) + oxygen/carbon/nitrogen/boron source (g) → ceramic(s) + byproduct (g)